One factor that has been constantly evolving since the introduction of the global network and the Internet in the 1990s (research began in the 1960s) is the mix of transparency and privacy. There were also changes in security (storage, transfer, etc.) and speed (the total time it took for data to move from one place to another). Another change currently being observed and experienced is the transition from a prestigious functional architecture to a decentralized or semi-delegated platform. The desire to move from a form of competence to a decentralized form began with the 2008 financial crisis (also known as the global financial crisis). The decentralized design of platforms and applications originally began with a unique problem in a particular industry. Observed and experienced success in many situations, the desire to spread and maintain at the same time came into the picture. ZKP (Zero-Knowledge Proof) can be said to be an updated version of the original successful models. In this chapter, you will learn something about ZKP’s improved ability to adjust currency and supply.

The following content includes some drawings and / or proposed prototypes that also enable digital currency / privacy in the privacy and adaptability of the supply chain.

This piece The study looks extensively at the privacy-preserving responses of the Blockchain ecosystem and current and anticipated questions that may arise in the future. Figures 2 and 3 presents how identity management has changed as time has changed in terms of privacy and time, and gives an idea of ​​the background process of a self-sovereign identity management model (SSID) in a blockchain. The workflow and the relationship between the user, the issuer and the service provider / verifier are presented in an abstract way. Unlike in a centralized ecosystem where the user has no control over the data used, in a decentralized ecosystem the user has governance / authority in DIDs (distributed tags), Wallet applications, etc. The focus has been mainly on the security aspects of a particular task / prototype. To make it economically widespread and adaptable at the same time, ZKP was first introduced, after which zk-SNARK (Zero-Knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge) was introduced. In addition to ZKP and zk-SNARK, Ring Signatures, Homomorphic Hiding, and Secure Multi-Party Computation (SMPC) are used as privacy-protective approaches in the block chain. If you want to know about certain categories of taxonomy privacy-preserving techniques in the block chain, Figure 4 will help you understand the categories clearly. The following study introduces a signaling and screening method using a non-centralized approach to clarify accountability in order to reduce the risks of verifying asymmetric effects.

To improve privacy, the authentication process is said to be a show-stopwatch. SK4SC (Secure Kernel for Supply Chains) is a proposed prototype to help improve privacy. SK4SC understands the probabilistic verification system of the verification process, which includes (but is not limited to) design, manufacture, procurement, inspection, disposal, and delivery. If you want to know more about SK4SC’s architecture plan, see figure 1. The digital signature of the hysteresis and the crossing of the signature log chain are used for block chains as public directories. Hysteresis digital signature is an encryption method developed to solve the problem in some applications where digital signatures require validation for long periods of time. The issue is resolved by concatenating the signatures of each document so that each document also depends on the documents signed by its predecessors (hash values). Returning to Figure 1, which shows the operation of the prototype background system, the operation takes place through two protocols. The two protocols are “data sharing” and “derived data to be authenticated and sharing of witness values ​​to ZKP (zero data certificate)”. Proper synchronization and symmetry in distribution requires data to be reported and added to public accounts. In addition to the digital signature of hysteresis, SK4SC also uses ZKP-based encryption protocols (Camenisch-Lysyanskaya and Camenisch – Shoup), which are part of the Random Oracle model. Figure 3 shows the similarity of this prototype to a CRM with royalty points. The royalty of the prototype can be considered as a refund of the value paid by the user. Figure 3 illustrates e-government and taxation. Another example is HARB, which helps decentralized energy trading.

In addition to the financial services and pharmaceutical industries, the energy sector is one area that is having discussions / debates to change the industry by moving it to a decentralized form (from a functional point of view). One example that illustrates the growing curiosity and energy production of a decentralized framework is HARB (Hypergraph-Based Adaptive Consortium Blockchain Framework). The distinguishing feature of this prototype is that it coordinates distributed energy sources (DERs) through high-degree relationships in P2P pairs. Figure 2 presents an overview of the HARB framework. The left side of the image represents the abstract form of the three layers (contract layer, overlay layer, and base layer), while the right side represents their background functions in a small detail. The substrate layer, also called the physical layer (for this prototype), expresses distinctive relationships from a unique time; location; identity; and a context derived from the properties of the nodes interacting in a particular grid. Later, appropriate relationships for community disclosure are made by examining the frequency of inter-node interaction. Observation of focused interactions implies the presence of intra-Community relations, while low levels of interaction indicate intra-Community relations. You can say that the cover layer forms a block chain network model (BNM) comprising an Adaptive blockchain-module manager (ABM) and a blockchain client manager (BCM) (shown in Figure 4). The ABM consciously clusters nodes through high-order interaction management, node resource management, and module management to form modules. Each module manager implements a blockchain service (acceptance, ordering, authentication, commitment). For each node to function properly, ABM’s module manager assigns a role to each node based on capability, reliability, and reputation. Finally, the contract layer covers the application network. Applications, also called smart contracts, help define user requirements that are provided using blockchain services. The following possible practical example combines the tourism industry with decentralized technology.

Tourism is another sector that is absorbed in decentralized technologies. based on this piece of research, As more people travel to different countries more often (for professional or personal reasons), the security perspective is changing and is expected to change further. A fourth technology based on the revolution, such as blockchain, helps to achieve a suitable end result. The well-known digital concept of tourists presented here can be seen as a step closer to a systematic change in the overall safety of tourism. One reason (among other things) is that it acts as a catalyst to improve the overall security of the tourism industry. With the well-known passenger digital concept, you / the user control the use of their data and act as an authorized individual, which contributes to security from a broader perspective. The key technologies in use are:

  1. Distributed edging technology
  2. Biometric technology
  3. Encryption
  4. Mobile interface

The infographics below provide a potential outline of how user information is linked to distributed technologies.

To understand the core environment, your / the passenger’s data, which is roughly covered (biometric data, mobile data and agent data) previously managed by the central authority, will be decentralized. This means that the data source (s) would each be on the go, the data would be encrypted with a recently updated algorithm, and indexing would be done by hashing or some other open source algorithms to ensure accountability, transparency and data security at the same time. For a small picture of how the prototype works, see Figure 11.

This piece of research lives in the delivery area, which makes it adaptable in ZKP. ISA95 is seen as compatible with the technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, such as artificial intelligence, blockchain, the Internet of Things, and so on. One reason for the applicability of ISA95 with blockchain and sister-like technologies is the conversion from ISA95-CTS (compatible traditional manufacturing systems) to SMMS (geographically distributed intelligent manufacturing) units. Functional requirements are also seen as a process that defines the characteristics of software:

  1. Connection between nodes
  2. Ledger-to-led communication
  3. Ledger-to -planetary file system communication
  4. General Ledger External Data Source Communication (Oracle)

Figures 2 to 6 show the use cases / features mentioned in the figures described above to help you understand the background system of how data flows in each layer. To see an overall action plan after all components have become interoperable, see Figure 7. At the core, the figure shows the relationship between an intelligent contract, separate prototypes, and distributed applications.

On the basis of the proposed prototypes mentioned above, it is positive to say that improving privacy and adaptability of supplies will become the norm in the coming days. As curiosity has multiplied, expect to encounter newer distributed platforms and applications much faster. Visit Cousins know more about the latest updates to the blockchain ecosystem and distributed technologies.

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