1. Overview

JavaFX is Java library used to build RI Iinternet Aapplications (RIA). It offers a set of graphics and media packages which allows developers to design, create, test, debug, and deploy rich client applications that work consistently across platforms.

JavaFX provides rich graphical user interface. JavaFX has structure and APIs, especially animations, 2D and 3D geometry, charts, special effects, color gradients, graphical controls, and media, including audio, video, and images, easy to manipulate.

2. Key features of JavaFX

  • Compatibility between platforms: JavaFX is available for leading desktop operating systems (Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X).
  • Java library: JavaFX is a Java library consisting of classes and interfaces written in native Java code.
  • FXML: FXML is an XML-based explanatory markup language that defines the structure of a JavaFX application interface.
  • WebView: WebView is a network component that use WebKitHTML technology for embedding HTML content in a JavaFX application. JavaScript running in WebView can call Java APIs, and Java APIs can call JavaScript running in WebView.
  • Swing interoperability: Existing Swing applications can be upgraded with JavaFX features such as embedded web content and rich graphics media. With JavaFX, we can create a lot of content much easier than with Swing.
  • Built-in interface controls: JavaFX provides all the major interface drivers needed to develop a versatile application.
  • CSS type formatting: JavaFX can be skinned with standard web technologies such as CSS. It provides a CSS-type style to improve application design.
  • Canvas API: The JavaFX Canvas API allows you to draw directly on an area of ​​the JavaFX view that consists of a single graphical element.
  • Multitouch support: JavaFX provides support for multi-touch operations based on platform features.
  • Integrated graphics library: JavaFX provides classes for 2D and 3D graphics.
  • Graphics tube: JavaFX supports graphics based hardware-accelerated graphics rendering is known Prism. When used with a supported video card or graphics card, it provides smooth graphics. If the system does not support the graphics card, the prism is the software rendering stack by default.
  • Standalone application deployment model: Standalone application packages you have all the application resources and a private copy of Java and JavaFX times. They are distributed as original installable packages and provide the same installation and boot experience as the native applications for that operating system.

3. JavaFX application structure


JavaFX models a graphics application using a theatrical metaphor.

Step

  • The stage represents upper level tank or window. It contains all the objects in a JavaFX application.
  • It is defined by javafx.stage.Stage class.
  • The size of the phase can be determined by shifting its dimensions (height and width).
  • The stage is divided into content area and decorations (title bar and borders).

View

  • The scene represents the physical content of a JavaFX application. It includes all individual controls or components.
  • It is defined by javafx.scene.Scene class.
  • An application can have more than one scene, however only one of the scenes can be shown on stage whenever.
  • The size of a scene can be determined by shifting its dimensions (height and width) root node to its builder.

Scene diagram

  • The scene diagram is a tree-like data structure (hierarchical) represents the content of the scene. All visual components (controls, layouts, etc.) are part of the scene diagram.
  • The components of the scene chart must be attached to the scene to be displayed, and that scene must be attached to the scene so that the entire view is visible.

Nodes

  • The node is a visual / graphic object of the scene graph.
  • The nodes in the scene diagram are defined javafx.scene.Node class.
  • A node can contain:
    Geometric or graphic objects: 2D, 3D
    User interface management: Button, CheckBox, ChoiceBox, TextArea, and so on.
    Tanks or layout boxes: BorderPane, GridPane, FlowPane, and so on.
    Media elements: Audio, Videoand Image objects.
  • Nodes are of the following types:
    Root node: The first node of the scene diagram.
    Branch / parent node: A node with child nodes such as –Group, Region, StackPane, and so on.
    Leaf node – Node without child nodes such as –Rectangle, Ellipse, Box, ImageView, MediaView, and so on.

4. JavaFX components

JavaFX has a large number of built-in GUI components, such as buttons, text fields, tables, trees, menus, charts, and more.

Some of the main components of JavaFX are:

Controls

  • JavaFX drivers are JavaFX components that provide some sort of control functions Inside a JavaFX application.
  • For control to be visible, it must be attached to a scene graph of a scene.
  • Drivers are usually nested within a JavaFX layout section which manages the arrangement of the controls relative to each other.
  • Some examples of JavaFX drivers are –Button, CheckBox, Label, Menu, RadioButton, TableView, TextField, TreeView, and so on.

Layouts

  • JavaFX layouts are components that contains other components inside them. The layout component controls the layout of the components within it.
  • JavaFX layout components are also sometimes called main components because they contain subcomponents and because the layout components are subclasses of the JavaFX class javafx.scene.Parent.
  • A layout component must be attached to a scene graph for a viewport in order for it to be visible.
  • Is it possible nest layout components inside other layout parts. This can be useful for achieving a specific layout.
  • Some examples of JavaFX layouts are –Group, Pane, HBox, VBox, BorderPane, StackPane, GridPane, and so on.

Charts

JavaFX includes a number of built-in ready-to-use formula components to avoid encoding charts from scratch whenever you need a base map.

2D / 3D graphics

JavaFX includes features that make it easy to draw 2D / 3D graphics on the screen.

Audio

JavaFX provides features that make it easier to play audio in JavaFX applications. This is typically useful in games or educational applications.

Video

JavaFX includes features that make it easy to play videos in JavaFX applications. This is typically useful in streaming applications, games, or educational applications.

WebView

JavaFX includes a WebView component that can display web pages using HTML and CSS. The JavaFX WebView component is based on WebKitHTML technology.

5. Build the GUI application using JavaFX

Here we create a simple JavaFX application, as shown in the video. This application consists of a downloadable GIF, download text, a cross button, and a background.

Let’s look at the source code of this JavaFX application:

https://gist.github.com/mansi7babbar/c0547010ab91c17f515c1fd4677cc4a2

Understand the steps to build this JavaFX application:

Set starting point:

  • The JavaFX interface program continues javafx.application.Application.
  • It is the starting point of a JavaFX application.

Specify start method:

  • JavaFXSeeder class inherits Application class and implement an abstract method start().
  • In this method, we write the entire code for JavaFX graphics.

Place scene:

  • Ice javafx.scene.Scene by specifying the scene chart root where the root is of type javafx.scene.Group.
  • We can also pass two dual types of parameters that represent height and width scene.

Set step:

  • Then we set javafx.stage.Stage object. Set the title using the method setTitle(). Attach the scene to the stage using setScene() method.
  • Use to display the contents of the scene show() method.
  • primaryStage is a phase object passed to the parameter class scene class start method. The primary step is to create the forum itself.
  • We can also set width, height, taskbar icon and StageStyle stage.
  • We can also place our apps on top of other apps by calling setAlwaysOnTop() stage object.

Set the layout:

  • Here we use javafx.scene.layout.StackPane than a top-level configuration node that places her child in a back-forward stack.
  • We can assign a unique ID and dimensions to this StackPane.
  • We can also add mouse drag events to the layout using setOnMousePressed() and setOnMouseDragged() event handlers.
  • Press to set the position of the layout on the screen setAlignment().

Set internal layout:

  • The outer layout node has three child nodes, which is Image, javafx.scene.layout.HBox and javafx.scene.layout.VBox .
  • HBox organize content nodes horizontally on one line. VBox organize content nodes vertically in one column.
  • We can add nodes to control the layout getChildren().add() for one node and getChildren().addAll() for multiple nodes.

Set drivers:

  • JavaFX provides a huge number of drivers (or components) in a package javafx.scene.control.
  • Build a Button and place it in the upper right corner of the window. Attach a javafx.event.EventHandler<ActionEvent> that Button, method setOnAction().
  • We can embed javafx.scene.shape.Text Instant this category to the JavaFX scene. We can set the font, color, position, etc. of the text.
  • We can upload an image to a JavaFX file by instanting a class javafx.scene.image.Image. After uploading the image, we can set the image view by instanting ImageView class and conveying the image to its builder.

Launch application:

  • in main()method, we need to launch the application using launch() method.
  • This method calls internally start() method Application class.

6. Summary

In this article, we talked about JavaFX and its huge features. We will learn about the most important features of JavaFX. We explore the structure of a JavaFX application and how a scene, phase, scene diagram, and nodes can be modeled into a graphics application. We read about a large number of built-in GUI components provided by JavaFX. We then created a JavaFX application and studied its operation.

Interpreted from JavaFX to a full-fledged GUI library The growth of JavaFX is commendable.

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